Join us in monitoring and researching the promotional activities of the global tobacco industry.
"In our opinion, [after taxation] the other two regulatory environment changes that concern the industry the most are homogenous packaging and below-the-counter sales. Both would significantly restrict the industry's ability to promote their products." Morgan Stanley Research (2007)
A widely recognised method of calculating tobacco-related mortality has been developed by Richard Peto et al. and is described in the following publications:
Peto R, Lopez AD, Boreham J, Thun M and Heath Jr C. Mortality from tobacco in developed countries: indirect estimation from national vital statistics. Lancet 1992; 339:1268-78.
Peto R, Lopez AD, Boreham J, Thun M and Heath Jr C. Mortality from Smoking in Developed Countries 1950-2000. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1994.
The following list of references is based on a bibliography prepared by Stan Shatenstein.
Asma S, Pederson L. Tobacco control in Africa: opportunities for prevention. Tob Control 1999;8:353-354.
Baris E. et al. Research priorities for tobacco control in developing countries: a regional approach to a global consultative process. Tob Control 2000;9:217-223.
Barnum H. The economic burden of the global trade in tobacco. Tob Control 1994;3:358-361.
Bettcher D, Shapiro I. Tobacco control in an era of trade liberalisation. Tob Control 2001;10:65-67.
Callard C Chitanondh H, Weissman R. Why trade and investment liberalisation may threaten effective tobacco control efforts. Tob Control 2001;10:68-70.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) WHO, CDC, CPHA. To mark the 10th anniversary of the GTSS, this atlas (2009) illustrates its findings as well as key data from WHO's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and MPOWER.
Efromyson D et al. It's Rude to Say No: Vietnamese Opinions about Tobacco Control. IDRC, Vietnam, March 1998.
Mackay J, Eriksen M. The Tobacco Atlas. World Health Organization, Geneva, 2002.
Medhora R, Phillips A, and Savigny D. The economics of tobacco trade: enabling the transition. Tob Control 1994;3:295-296.
Research for International Tobacco Control (RITC). Ottawa Declaration on Tobacco and Sustainable Development. IDRC/RITC. Ottawa, Canada. November 6, 2002.
Swart D, Reddy P, Steyn K. Strengthening Comprehensive Tobacco Control Policy Development in South Africa Using Political Mapping. Medical Research Council, South Africa. January/February 1998.
Van Walbeek C. Effective Development Policies Require Political Will: The Example of Tobacco Control in South Africa. IDRC Seminar, 13 June 2001.
Waverley Brigden L. Big Tobacco's Next Target: Women and Children in Poorer Countries are Picking Up the Cigarette Habit. IDRC Reports, November 20, 2000.
Waverley Brigden L. Viewpoint: Lighting Fires for Tobacco Control. IDRC Reports, December 6, 2002.
World Bank. Curbing the epidemic: Governments and the Economics of Tobacco Control. Washington, DC: The World Bank, 1999. The executive summary was reprinted in: Tob Control 1999;8:196-201.
World Bank Economics of Tobacco Discussion Papers
Collection of studies (draft, preliminary or final papers) jointly published by The World Bank and The World Health Organization (WHO). New studies released include the economics of tobacco control in Bangladesh, the Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka and Thailand. There is also a regional analysis of tobacco prices and taxes on selected countries of South East Asia.
de Beyer, J. et al. Poverty and tobacco. Tob Control 2001;10:210-211.
Efroymson D, ed. Tobacco and Poverty: Observations from India and Bangladesh. PATH Canada 2002.
Jha P, Chaloupka F, ed. Tobacco Control in Developing Countries, WHO, World Bank, OUP 2000. This is the book of background papers on which Curbing the Epidemic: Governments and the Economics of Tobacco Control draws.
Mzileni O. et al. Lung cancer, tobacco, and environmental factors in the African population of the Northern Province, South Africa. Tob Control 1999;8:353-354.
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Efroymson D, Ahmed S. Hungry for Tobacco: An analysis of the economic impact of tobacco on the poor in Bangladesh. PATH Canada, Dhaka, Bangladesh, revised 2001.
Efroymson, D. et al. Hungry for tobacco: an analysis of the economic impact of tobacco consumption on the poor in Bangladesh. Tob Control 2001;10:212-217.
Fair Trade Tobacco? There is no such thing. A resource on tobacco industry agriculture exploitation.
Christian Aid/DESER. Hooked on tobacco. Christian Aid 2002.
Hickey E, Chan Y.Tobacco, Farmers and Pesticides: The Other Story. PANNA 1998.
McBride JS et al. Green tobacco sickness. Tob Control 1998;7:294-298.
MMWR. Green Tobacco Sickness in Tobacco Harvesters -- Kentucky, 1992. MMWR Weekly 1993;42(13);237-240
Eldring L, Nakanyane S, Tshoaedi M. Child Labour in the Tobacco Growing Sector in Africa. Fafo 2000.
International Development Research Centre. Tobacco in Developing Countries: Dream Scenario or Shrill Wake-Up Call? IRDC, Canada, 2002.
Chapman, S. Tobacco and Deforestation in the Developing World. Tob
Geist HJ. Global assessment of deforestation related to tobacco farming. Tob Control 1999;8:18-28.
Geist HJ. How tobacco farming contributes to tropical deforestation. Mensch und globale Umweltveränderungen. Institut für Psychologie, Universität Freiburg, 1997.
Kweyuh PHM. Tobacco expansive in Kenya: the socio-ecological losses. Tob Control 1994;3:248-251.
Muwanga-Bayego H. Tobacco growing in Uganda: the environment and women pay the price. Tob Control 1994;3:255-256.
Novotny TE, Zhao F. Consumption and production waste: another externality of tobacco use. Tob Control 1999;8:75-80.
Waluye J. Environmental impact of tobacco growing in Tabora/Urambo, Tanzania. Tob Control 1994;3:252-254.
:The tobacco industry in Asia: revelations in the corporate documents (View the online issue)
Cross regional papers
Knight J, Chapman S. ‘‘Asia is now the priority target for the world anti-tobacco movement'': attempts by the tobacco industry to undermine the Asian anti-smoking movement. Tobacco Control 2004;13 (Suppl II):ii30-ii36. Objective: To identify and examine the strategies utilised by multinational tobacco companies to undermine and discredit key anti-tobacco activists and organisations in the Asian region.
Knight J, Chapman S. ‘‘Asian yuppies...are always looking for something new and different'': creating a tobacco culture among young Asians. Tobacco Control 2004;13 (Suppl II):ii22-ii29. Objective: To identify and analyse the themes employed by the Asian based transnational tobacco companies to construct a tobacco culture among Asian young men and women.
Assunta M, Fields N, Knight J, et al. ‘‘Care and feeding'': the Asian environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) consultants programme. Tobacco Control 2004;13 (Suppl II):ii4-ii12. Objective: To review the tobacco industry's Asian environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) consultants programme, focusing on three key nations: China, Hong Kong, and Malaysia.
Knight J, Chapman S. ‘‘A phony way to show sincerity, as we all well know'': tobacco industry lobbying against tobacco control in Hong Kong. Tobacco Control 2004;13 (Suppl II):ii13-ii21. Objective: To examine the tobacco industry's efforts to influence public policy and block the legislative process on tobacco control in Hong Kong, 1973 to 1997.
Assunta M, Chapman S. A ‘‘clean cigarette'' for a clean nation: a case study of Salem Pianissimo in Japan. Tobacco Control 2004;13 (Suppl II):ii58-ii62. Objective: To illustrate, through internal industry documents, how RJ Reynolds exploited the concerns of the Japanese society about cleanliness to market the concept of cleaner, implicitly healthier cigarettes in Japan.
Assunta M, Chapman S. Industry sponsored youth smoking prevention programme in Malaysia: a case study in duplicity. Tobacco Control 2004;13 (Suppl II):ii37-42. Objective: To review tobacco company strategies of using youth smoking prevention programmes to counteract the Malaysian government's tobacco control legislation and efforts in conducting research on youth to market to them.
Assunta M, Chapman S. A mire of highly subjective and ineffective voluntary guidelines: tobacco industry efforts to thwart tobacco control in Malaysia. Tobacco Control 2004;13 (Suppl II):ii43-ii50. Objective: To describe tobacco industry efforts in Malaysia to thwart government efforts to regulate tobacco promotion and health warnings.
Assunta M, Chapman S. The tobacco industry's accounts of refining indirect tobacco advertising in Malaysia. Tobacco Control 2004;13 (Suppl II):ii63-ii70. Objective: To explore tobacco industry accounts of its use of indirect tobacco advertising and trademark diversification (TMD) in Malaysia, a nation with a reputation for having an abundance of such advertising.
Alechnowicz K, Chapman S. The Philippine tobacco industry: ''the strongest tobacco lobby in Asia''. Tobacco Control 2004;13 (Suppl II): ii71-ii78. Objective: To highlight revelations from internal tobacco industry documents about the conduct of the industry in the Philippines since the 1960s. Areas explored include political corruption, health, employment of consultants, resisting pack labelling, and marketing and advertising.
Assunta M, Chapman S. ‘‘The world's most hostile environment'': how the tobacco industry circumvented Singapore's advertising ban. Tobacco Control 2004;13 (Suppl II):ii51-ii57. Objective: To review how tobacco transnational companies conducted their business in the hostile environment of Singapore, attempting to counter some of the government's tobacco control measures; to compare the Malaysian and the Singaporean governments' stance on tobacco control and the direct bearing of this on the way the tobacco companies conduct their business.